Jess Collins, who is often known by Jess, was born on August 6, 1923 in Long Beach, California. But he spent his childhood in Southern CA suburbs. Jess has already kindled a passion for art when he was little, because he had an aunt who taught him to make crafts. However, Jess went to California Institute of Technology and majored in Chemistry instead of Art. During his sophomore year in CIT, Jess was drafted to the military to serve in the Manhattan Project, which is a project to make bombs as nuclear weapons for use in WWII. After Jess was discharged, he went back to CIT and obtained his chemistry degree in 1948. (Gluck, 118-119)
After college, Jess found a job in the General Electric Laboratories, where required him to move to Richland, Washington. Jess was working on the Hanford project that requires him to produce plutonium. During the job, he developed a horrible dream. He believed that the world would be destroyed in 1975. Because of this belief, Jess worried about his life in the limited time, thus he rethink for his career. Finally, Jess decided to abandon his career in Chemistry, and chose to pursue Art, “I decided if the collapse of the world was going to be the case I wanted to do something truly meaningful. Art was far more meaningful than making plutonium”. Jess admits this by saying “I’ve always had a passion in Art, but somehow, Science got in the way…” (Duncan, 160)
After quitting his job, Jess first wanted to go to the University of California, Berkely. However because of his chemistry background, the school officials asked him to do psychological test. Never again giving up Art, Jess enrolled another art school, California School of the Arts, which is now San Francisco Art Institute. Jess started studying Art in the year of 1949. In school, Jess had some tremendous teachers. He had Clyfford Still, David Park, Hassel Smith and William Corbett. Still and Park were the ones who inspired Jess the most, “Still always wanted [us] to paint with ‘person truth’, rather than the canons of modernist ot avant –garde theory…David Park’s drawing classes were important to me…we were told to do a drawing in a minute…this released me to discover images.” (Auping, “Interview with Jess”.19-27) Also, Jess’ favorite teacher was Ed Corbett that he complimented “Ed has a way of evoking things from you. His paintings seemed much less about technique than a certain mood…” (Auping, “Interview with Jess” 118-127)
Dedicating himself to art, Jess rather to break the relationship with his family and dropped his last name to only address himself as “Jess”. He wants to only focus on Art. In 1951, Jess finally found one who can help him developing his art. Robert Duncan is the one who met Jess from a poetry circle, and later who started a relationship with Jess. Jess and Duncan shared a house in San Francisco. They usually have poetry meetings in the house where they invite only a certain people, since Jess does not like to be in the crowd to be faced by people, or even be noticed by someone. (“Jess 1923-2004”. Artweek. 35)
In Jess’ life, he did numerous paintings and collages. He usually based on the themes of chemistry, alchemy, and male beauty. Jess’ famous work separated into three main sections Translation, the Savages, the paste ups. Nevertheless, Jess’ art are romantic since he collaborates his works with poetry and he often does illustrations for poems and book covers. (Auping, “Song of Innocence”. 245)
In Jan, 2004, Jess died in house at the age of 80. He left us not only his beautiful works but also his romanticism.
Jess has three major types of work, the Translations, the Savages, and the Paste Ups. The Translations is a series of works that Jess translates to his style from photographs or others’ artworks. The Savages is a series of unfinished works by him and other painters that Jess finished. And the Paste Ups is a series of collages that Jess has done using cut outs from random magazines or book. Producing all these works, Jess discovered the style Romanticism all fell in love with it. He often added his own emotions through developing an imagination on each of his pieces.
Translations is Jess’ first type of art. In it, Jess did paintings from photographs, but he painted them in different colors and he converted them to his romantic style. And most of the photographs Jess uses were from the 19th century. This is why Jess claims that he was “translating” the photographs. According to Jess, this process of translating “enlarges a found image and translates its graphic presence into fluid, tactile pigment…and it involves a series of “events” to give the mood and spirit.” (Auping, “Interview with Jess”.118-127)
Translation is also a metaphor for Romanticism which Jess holds between image, allegory and nonobjective paintings. To jess, it is like coloring a book. He usually began with pencil drawings, and then filled the drawings with layers and layers of paint. Sometimes, the layers could rise from the canvas as much as two inches. (Auping, “A Grand Collage”. 25-26)
Savages is Jess’ second type of art. In it, he finished the unfinished paintings by either himself or other painters. Jess usually adds in his own imagination and mood into those unfinished paintings, so he changed the intended ideas of the other artists or himself. Since from Still, Jess learned to paint with “personal truth”, which focuses on the mood he has while painting, rather than the rules of the modernist.
Even though Jess painted slowly, he enjoyed painting “something intuitively” during which his mood might change many times. Jess believes that when you put simple images together, a kind of dialogue or story would develop automatically and the colors arrive in the painting “for the sake of the painting and not for my intellectual sake”. (Auping, “Interview with Jess”. 19-27) A painting is a kind of collage of the emotions that affects him during the course of its making. Jess started to develop his beliefs, after learning an ability from Skill “to accept an image on the canvas for what the paint would do…rather than what was supposed to be good, right, or proper on painting.”
From his Chemistry theory, Jess believes that “all matter is energy and all matter and energy are infused with spirit” which means all things have spirits themselves. Therefore, Jess doesn't set up for a particular meaning to come forth. (Pee, 83) And obviously, Jess did not stick with only one way of thinking.
Jess’ Paste Ups are his third type of art. He usually found images and pictures from old magazines and books. He would cut out the pictures he wanted and glue them on the collage. Speaking of this process, Jess has special scissors and knives to cut out the pieces. He would then play around with the pieces by moving them until he is satisfied with his imagination. Jess also wears his handmade blindfold when working on his collage, since then he can prevent him from peeking the periphery which might cause him to stray away from his thoughts.
In Jess’ early collages, he used advertising images and slogan to express satire and absurdity in sexuality and politics. The images and words he used stand in for each other. And the books Jess used are ranging fro visual and literary cultures from Gnostic texts and Greek poetry to collections of Harper’s Bazaar and Scientific American.
“An allegory is the way anyone person sees and interprets the structure of reality” (Mario, 47)Jess believes. He knows that allegory which comes from imagination is crucial in solidifying his style, Romanticism. Because Romanticism discloses reality mainly through allegory.
Romanticism, being Jess’ style, is an artistic and literary movement which started in the 18th century in Western Europe. Romanticism is a revolt against the logistics of nature and the social and political restrictions. Romanticism is usually deeply developed in art and literature. (“Historical Consideration”)
The strong characteristic of Romanticism was emotion, because emotion creates imaginations, especially the emotion of horror. Other focuses of emotions are affections, sorrows, and romantic longings. Like other Romantic artists, Jess likes to use emotion to develop imaginations to their works in order to horrify and amaze the audience (“Historical Consideration”)
Since, Romantic artists tend to present their imaginations and creativity, Jess tended to created works that are dynamic and striking. Imagination is the necessary for creating art; it can help the society to remind of reality. It reminds of reality when the artist invokes conflicts inside the audience, such as painting a scene that people were killing each other in a war. It also emphasizes on the importance of intuition, instincts, and feelings, which denotes the importance of emotion. And most of the time, artists create reality after they perceive it. Imagination is the ultimate solution human for beings to face themselves to the contraries in the world. (“Historical Consideration”)
Symbolism and myth are significant as well. Symbol is the representation of objects or ideas. It is valued because it can suggest ideas and also allow the development of imaginations. Particularly, symbols can sometimes explain the "inexpressible". (“Historical Consideration”)
Being one of the Romantic artists, Jess dismissed the idea that everything in the universe works systematically and on its own. Instead, he believes everything cooperate to make the universe work. This caused Jess to sometimes feel ambivalent while living in both his own imaginary world and the social world around him. As a result, Jess often separated himself from the public. He stayed home almost the rest of his life after Duncan’s death.
Since Jess usually interpreted things through his emotions, his art works are sometimes attached with his rebellion toward the social world. Though art, Jess was able to declare his individuality and differences to the social world.
Many of Jess’ art works are romantic, such as the two “Paste Ups” I picked. They are the Mouse’s Tale and an untitled paste up in “Jess, To and From the Printed Page”.
“The Mouse’s Tale” is a piece of work that he uses to express his rebellion toward the world. The largest man in the middle of the collage might be representing Jess, and the head portraits are lined up on the side might be representing the different kinds of people in the world. Jess is agitated by these many kinds of people. He does not want to be bothered and he just wants to smash them away from his world. Jess wants to be able to enjoy in his own space.
In the collage, the man’s head first caught my attention. It has a weird form, because the head is not round. Then, when I looked closely, I found that there’re many little men within the head. All the little men have different gestures, and I realized that this is reason the head doesn't look round. Following the directions given by the little man’s gesture, my sight traveled down to the neck and then the shoulders. From the shoulder to the wrist of the man’s hand, the little men have their legs closed, but at the tips of the fingers, their legs are spread apart. With their legs spread apart, the legs actually form the shape of a hand with fingers. Also, the feet serve as finger nails. The man might be able to use especially his finger nails to scratch his enemies when smashing them.
My eye sight then traveled back to the shoulders of the man and then to his left arm. Opposite to the little man in the man’s right arm, the little men in the left arm to left hand have entirely their body coiled up. And the coiled up structure helped shape the form of a fist. The man seemed to be using his fist to hold his head. He is acting politely to listen to those people who are laughing in front of him. However, behind his pretence, he hates those people deeply that he has to smash them at their faces, since they have the emphasis on their faces to laugh at the man.
Afterward, I put my focus to the man’s body, because there’s a dark blue spot around his stomach area. After I carefully examine the spot, I see that it is actually a man with only a body and small hands. The man’s head tilted forward; he seemed to be interested in seeing the emotions of the people outside and in line beside the wall. This dark blue man may be the spirit of the large man who directs actions for him. Since he can sense the emotions of the evil people outside, and he knows the characteristics of the man, he can motivate him take his revolt.
Later, my eyes sights were down the bottom at the man’s hips. His hips are the only parts in the body that have form. And they also have a different color than the body. It is the color of yellow grayish. Inside the left hip, there is a woman laughing and she might also be laughing at the man. Moving down from the left hip, I see the left thigh which is got the yellow grayish color disappeared. And there I see the little men again. Soon, I see two head portraits when I reached the left calve. One is of an old man, and the other one is of young man. They both have mean looks on their face. It might be that they are unsatisfied at the large man. Combining the laughing woman and these two mean men, it points out that the large man must be tired of dissatisfactions, lots of requirements and mockeries. Underneath the large man’s calve; the little men appeared again in the left foot. However, the little men seemed to be tiring and burdensome since they have to bear the weight of the whole body. They have gestures that they are carrying the body. After the left foot, my eyes moved to the right foot. There are also little men in the right foot. However, contrary to my prediction, the little men in the right foot are not burdensome at all like the little men in the left foot; they are instead fooling around. One of the little men is even lying down and is playing with his legs. All of the facts that little men coiled themselves up in the left side, little men at the bottom left side have to bear with the weight of the whole body, and the there are troublesome people in the left leg reveal the audience that the man hates face people since the left side of his body is facing the crowd.
After examining the large man, I looked to the left side of the collage. I realized that there’re a bunch of head portraits lining along the side and making a circle at the bottom. All the head portraits are smiling. However, there’re different types of people. The first and second head portraits are two boys, the third head portrait is a woman, the fourth one is an old man, the fifth one is clown, the sixth and seventh ones are young men and the eighth one is a bald old man. The head portraits in the circle that’s at the bottom are also of different kinds of people. Starting from the yellow greenish one that’s on the right of the eighth head portrait, it is of a religious man because he has a small head cloth on. Moving to the right, there is the head portrait of a clown. And then next to him, it’s a man with a curly mustache and a mariner who has a blue cap on is following him. The next ones are three actors, because they all have red caps on and seemed to also have made up on. Following them is two soldiers who have green helmets on. And finally, a laughing clown is the last one and is closing the circle. To me, the line and the circle of head portraits symbolize the death penalty, hanging. Also I realized at last that there is a lion on the very top of the college. The body of the lion is slim that looks like a branch of the tree. And usually people hang themselves using the branches. The fact that the man is scared to face people and the lined up portraits look like the rope for hanging, it implies that evil people in world are forcing the large man to hang himself. However, with his rebellion at heart, the man still wishes to defeat all the evils in the world by rising himself to power.
At last, the sudden change from human’s head portraits to a lion’s head portrait not only surprises me but also tells me that Jess wanted to emphasize the cruelty of people in the world. Even though the people are laughing apparently, but deep in their heart, they think of condemnation of others. Overall, Jess’ collage The Mouse's Tale is a meaningful piece of artwork that helped him in delivering his thinking that people in the society are often cruel and selfish and that agitated him to push away the society and rather to be left alone.
The untitled paste up in fact another art work that Jess uses to expresses his rebellion to the world. When I looked at the collage, I immediately noticed the big skull that’s to the right and on top. It is round and has the colors white and gray. After I looked at it more, I saw it has a face of a young man on it and a neck connected to it. At the back of his neck, I also saw a loudspeaker coming off from the neck. The look of the young man seems is upset, since he closed his eyes and put his head down. Underneath the young man’s skull is another skull. This skull has the white color and the round shape as well. However, unlike the one of the young man, it has no face and no neck but a long tongue that’s stretching out. The tongue that is out seems to be engulfing the little man who’s in front of him. Technically, it is a normal skull that has huge holes on its eyes, nose and mouth since everything else has been decomposed. The orientations of the skulls are interesting, because the young man’s skull seems to be kissing the skull that’s underneath it.
Underneath the real skull is a face of another young man. This young man is looking up to the right and seemed puzzled. In front of the face of the young man, I saw a man standing and lifting his right hand up. This man is blackened. To the left of the blackened man, I see a white mouse with a black dot on his body. The mouse is about one half the height of the man, and is walking toward the man. On top of the mouse, there are two needles, which are pointing to each other with their tips. Then I saw the little man who is in the danger of being eaten by the skull because he’s hand is inside the skull. Besides the white mouse, there is a butterfly and a man. The man is apparently trying to attack the butterfly. And next to him, I saw five people who all look to different directions. Both the tallest woman and the black woman behind her were looking to the front, the audience. The other woman behind the tallest woman was looking to the left. Finally, the woman who’s the shortest and is in front of everyone is looking up. On top of these people was a priest who has a sign inside his hand. On it, I saw an laughing evil. My eye sights quickly caught the big man on the top left corner. He is a middle aged white man and was trying to light the stick to fire. However, there is also a blue horse and angels flying around the stick. They all seem to be excited to witness the fire.
By this time, my eye sights traveled to the pathway that’s behind the people on the boarder. On it, there are people lying on it. They all seemed to be overwhelmed, because they look frightened. They recoil their bodies trying to build protection.
Later, my eyes noticed the table and the couple on the pathway. On the table, there are accessories. And the woman in the couple is stabbing the man at the end of the path way.
At last, I saw a wall and a man with a large head but small body on the right. The man is pulling the table backward. And he looked stressful, since he’s curling his back in order to move the table.
After connecting to Jess’ romantic imaginations, the young man’s skull might be Jess’ and the real skull might be Duncan’s. Since Duncan died first, his skull is already decomposed while Jess’ is still in use by the face and the brain. Jess’ skull has a functioning brain in it. There is a gray cerebrum in his skull while there is only an empty cerebrum in Duncan’s. However, because of Jess’ passionate love to Duncan, his skull is kissing Duncan’s. Jess shows that he misses Duncan and is grudging that he died so soon. The loudspeaker on Jess’ neck also shows that Jess wants to announce his love for Duncan. Certainly, Duncan did not want to die that soon either, he wanted to live longer to express his love to Jess. Therefore, Duncan’s tongue is not decomposed all the way; he wanted it the most to praise Jess. However, the little man who’s risking his hand, he might be one of rumormongers who are curious about the gay marriage between Duncan and Jess. He’s now testing the love Duncan has for Jess by troubling Duncan’s ability to speak. Certainly, controversies of Jess and Duncan’s marriage are inevitable. The puzzled face on the bottom right hand corner should be the way Jess looks like when he feels agitated from rumors.
For jess, after Duncan’s death is everything is uninteresting. Therefore, he placed a blackened man in front of his puzzle look. Jess discloses the importance of Duncan in his heart by isolating himself from the world. Also, after the death of Duncan, Jess’ was mentally ill, and needed for cure. Therefore, there are two needles pointing at Jess’ Puzzled look. The white mouse which has a black dot on its body implies Jess’ depression. Jess thinks that the white and beautiful world built by him and Duncan is ruined because of the absence of Duncan. To Jess, everything in the world seemed messed up after Duncan’s death. The man who is attacking the butterfly represents the adversaries for gay marriage, while the butterfly represents gay marriage. Jess is annoyed that the adversaries were trying to illegalize gay marriage, which means to sabotage Duncan and Jess’ marriage.
For the five people on the bottom left corner, they might symbolize Jess’ friends. Jess expresses his disappointment that his friends excused themselves from helping when he asked and started to distance themselves from him after Duncan’s death. In the collage, all five people were looking at different directions and one of them were holding a sign of evil, which means that they might speak of evil behind Jess’ back. Next, the middle aged man who’s lighting the stick might be symbolized as God. Certainly, the blue horse and angels around the stick should be witnessing the fire of the city. Since says in the bible God dislikes gay marriages, and he had fired two cities, Sodom and Gomorrah, because the people living in them were gay. Jess points out his risk to live in the society where adversaries like God are wrathful toward gay marriages. This can be why the male nudes laying on the path are frightened. Even facing the fury of God, Jess still stands for his marriage. He holds onto his belief because he does not often see successful marriage between women and men. He set up an example by having a woman killing his husband at the end of the pathway. Jess is ready for punishment from God, even though it might be the eternality torments. He will be as the man who is pulling the table forward but still looking at the back. Jess will accept God’s punishment, but will still hold on to Duncan and his marriage, a sin under God’s eyes.
In conclusion, Jess is not only a “San Franciso Renaissance Artist”, but also a Romantic artist. His artworks are added with his imaginations, which are invoked by his motions. Jess does not force a fixed imagination on an artwork, he let his mood and emotions freely lead him to imagine in the painting process. In Jess’ life, rebellion is also one crucial theory, since most of his paste ups follow that trend.
Auping, Michael. “Interview with Jess.” Jess, A Grand Collage 1951-1993. Feb- Oct 1983. Apr 1992 – Jan 1993.
“Interview with Jess” is done by the interviewee Michael Auping. He questioned Jess about his background, his theories and his ways of producing art. Specifically, Jess explained his ways of seeing art romantically.
Auping, Michael. “Jess, A Grand Collage.” Jess, A Grand Collage 1951-1993. Ed. Spaulding, Karen, Lee. Jan 2001: 245.
This long composition explains detailedly about Jess’ background, including his childhood, education, career and art. It also analyzed Jess’ imaginations and styles for art that Jess has three unique kinds of works. The composition then explained certain pieces of Jess’ work and reveals how Jess was influenced by his life long partner, Robert Duncan. Jess’ and Duncan’s encounter and living styles were also described in the book.
Auping, Michael. Interview with Jess. Jess: Paste ups and Assemblies. 1983.
This book is a catalog of works that Jess has done. A small interview is included in it that Jess tells he likes to go shopping a lot since he can find random but useful materials for his producing of collages. And those materials sometimes give him the imagination, as Jess says he does not create art, its art that requests him to create them.
Auping, Michael. “Solar Systems.” Art Forum. Apr 2004. 25-26.
This article introduced Jess as an artist who enjoys writing poems and producing artworks. He likes to be with artistic people, such as poets, writers, curators and collectors. However, the article also mentions that Jess is a timid person who stayed in his house most of the time. In Jess’ younger days, he used to have a dream that the world would crash in 1975. As a result, Jess abandoned his career in Chemistry for pursuing art. Jess eventually studied art in San Francisco Institute of Art.
Auping, Michael. “Songs of Innocence.” Art in America . Jan 1987. 118-127.
The article introduced Jess as a reclusive artist who works with a variety of media. Jess was involved in the 1950s California Poetry Renaissance and was interested in connecting myths to his work. Jess’ life long partner, Robert Duncan, inspired Jess to even more connect poetry with art. Specifically, Jess’Translation is a series of work that are transposed from obscure photographs or artworks.
Baker K. “Jess Collins- San Francisco, Collage Artist” Chronicle Staff Writer. Jan 2007.
The article is mainly composed of a brief biography on Jess and a few small interviews on Jess’ neighbor. It tells that Jess was born in Long Beach, California, but was raised in Southern California suburds; Jess switched ended his carrer in Chemistry to pursue Art in 1949; and his start developing his art after moved in with his partner Robert Duncan. Most of Jess’ neighbor were amazed and proud of this San Francisco Renaissance artist, especially the curator of the San Francisco Museum was shocked by Jess’ collages.
Duncan, Michael. “Jess (1923-2004).” Art in America. Mar. 2004: 160.
Duncan tells that Jess is an independent artist who builds connections between his works and literature. Jess often produces art according to legends and myths though he worked in the Chemistry field once by producing plutonium. Jess was eventually enrolled in California School of San Francisco in 1949 and started his art journey since then.
Gluck, Robert. “Jess, the Mouse’s Tale, 1951.” Art Forum. Mar 2000 : 118-19.
The major part of the article is Gluck’s analysis on Jess’ first of’ “paste ups”, “The Mouse’s Tale”’. Gluck introduced Jess with Jess’ Chemitry background and how he at the end decided to abondon Chemistry for Art. At the sametime Jess also droped his last name and left his family because of Art. Gluck also reveals that Jess was obsessed with the tale “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.” that Jess worked on some of his pieces based on the tale.
“Jess (1923-2004).” Artweek. Mar 2004 :35.
Jess died at home in San Francisco on Jan 2, 2004. He died at the age of 80 with the name known as a painter and a collagist. Jess was born on Aug. 6. 1923, has worked as a chemist and then devoted to Art. Jess became known by his abstract paintings and collages in the early 1950s.
FRUGÉ, Anne. “Interview with Host Curator Peter Mears.” Jess: To and From the Printed Page. < http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/multimedia/audio/>
Through interviewing the hose curator Peter Mears, Fruge learns about Jess’ characteristics on his development of art as well as some of his techniques. She learned that Jess’ main theory is to put together pieces representing different parts of the world to make them equal to each other, because Jess believes that everything in the earth has connection with each other. Fruge also learned about certain pieces of Jess’ work that are being shown in the exhibition “Jess: To and From the Printed Page.”
Mario, Naves. “Jess: a Grand Collage.” The New Criterion. Dec 1994:47.
Reiview of the exhibition “Jess: a Granf Collage; 1951-1993”. Jess’ work is obseesive and private which wass bizarre match up with the works in the folk museums. However, Jess’ vision is narrow. His art is usually compelling to those wo favor profundity.
“Historical Consideration” Romanticism.
A summary of the hostry on Romanticism. There are Romantics Periods, Romantic Poets, Romantic Music, Romantic Painter. Some important Romantic themes are Fantasy, Emotion, Nature, Freedom, and Yearning.
Pee, Yasmine. “Jess: To and From the Printed Page: San Jose Musuem of Art.” Modern Painters. Aug 2007 : 83.
An exhibition of works by Jess Collins is in the San Jose Museum of At in California. The most heart-shocking in the exhibition should be Jess’ abstract but gorgeous collage. Since Jess adds words or literature symbols to his art, he is also viewed as a literary artist.
Duncan, Michael. “Maverick Modernist.” Art in America. Nov. 1994: 92-7.
The article introduced that Jess is a Bay Area Artist who had the resropective exhibition title “Jess: A Grand Collag 1951-1993.” In the Albright – knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York. Jess’ works can be refered to images from the late 19th and 20th century to present. Jess is interested in narration, mythology and symbolism. The drawing and collage “Narkissos” is considered to be Jess’ master piece although it is never finished.
“Romanticism.” Art History.
Romanticism has origins that can influence. It has comparable variety, reach, and power since the end of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 18th century, Romanticism transformed into poetry, the novel, drama, painting, sculpture, all forms of concert music and dance, especially opera and ballet. It was also connected with the politics of the time, stimulating people's fears, hopes, and aspirations. Romanticism was the voice of revolution at the beginning of the 19th century and the voice of the Establishment at the end of it.
Smith, K.E. An Analysis of William Blake’s Early Writings and Designs of 1790, including Songs of Innocence. Queenston, Ontario. 1999.
This book has an analysis on William Blakes’s Songs of Innocence. It is crucial to the research of Jess because Jess produced an artwork based on the Songs of Innocence.
Spievogel, Jackson. Western Civilization , Comprehensive Volume. 2003.
In a Chapter of this book, Jackson explained about Romanticism starting with its rising, movements and the most prosperous time periods. Jackson specifically relates the Romanticism with the Medieval time arts.
Wu, Duncan, “Introduction” Romanticism. Massachusetts: Cambridge. 1994.
The introduction explains that Romanticism is to a redefinition that can cause others have never perceived themselves as advocates to perceive in the way as the imagists or the Pre- Raphaeliete Brotherhood. It also tells that Romantics are sometimes artists of sensibility.